The M.S. is the professional degree in Geology. It opens up careers in industries dedicated to exploration of natural resources (water, energy, minerals), in public-sector regulation and protection of the environment and in environmental remediation.
As the terminal degree in Geology, the Ph.D. is the starting point of an academic career in the Earth and Planetary Sciences. It is also sought-after by public- and private-sector organizations focused on natural resources development and regulation.